Easily Create a Hyper-V Windows Server 2016 AD & Nano Server Lab


One of the PowerShell Modules I’ve been working on for the last year is called LabBuilder.The goal of this module is:

To automatically build a multiple machine Hyper-V Lab environment from an XML configuration file and other optional installation scripts.

What this essentially does is allow you to easily build Lab environments using a specification file. All you need to do is provide the Hyper-V environment and the Operating System disk ISO files that will be used to build the lab. This is great for getting a Lab environment spun up for testing or training purposes.

Note: Building a new Lab can take a little while, depending on the number of VM’s in the Lab as well as the number of different Operating Systems used. For example, a Lab with 10 VMs could take an hour or two to spin up, depending on your hardware.

The LabBuilder module comes with a set of sample Labs that you can build “as is” or modify for your own purpose. There are samples for simple one or two machine Labs as well as more complex scenarios such as failover clusters and two tier PKI environments. Plus, if you’re feeling adventurous you can easily create your own LabBuilder configurations from scratch or by modifying an existing LabBuilder configuration.

In this article I’ll show how to use a configuration sample that will build a lab containing the following servers:

  • 1 x Windows Server 2016 RTM Domain Controller (with DNS)
  • 1 x Windows Server 2016 RTM DHCP Server
  • 1 x Windows Server 2016 RTM Certificate Authority Server
  • 1 x Windows Server 2016 RTM Edge Node (Routing and Remote Access server)
  • 8 x Windows Server 2016 RTM Nano Servers (not yet automatically Domain Joined – but I’m working on it).

This is a great environment for experimenting with both Windows Server 2016 as well as Nano Server.

So, lets get started.


To follow along with this guide your Lab host (the machine that will host your Lab) will need to have the following:

Be running Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10

I strongly recommend using Windows 10 Anniversary Edition.

If you are using Windows Server 2012 R2 you will need to install WMF 5.0 or above. Although WMF 4.0 should work, I haven’t tested it.

Have enough RAM, Disk and CPU available for your Lab

Running a lot of VMs at once can be fairly taxing on your hardware. For most Sample Lab I’d recommend at least a quad core CPU, 16 GB RAM and a fast SSD with at least 10 GB per VM free (although for Nano Server VMs only 800MB is required).

The amount of disk used is minimized by using differencing disks, but Labs can still get pretty big.

Hyper-V Enabled

If you’re using Windows 10, see this guide.

If you’re using Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016, you probably already know how to do this, so I won’t cover this here.

Copies of any Windows install media that is used by the Lab

In our case this is just a copy of the Windows Server 2016 Evaluation ISO. You can download this ISO from here for free.

You can use non-evaluation ISOs instead if you have access to them, but at the time of writing this the Windows Server 2016 non-evaluation ISO wasn’t yet available on my MSDN subscription.

An Internet Connection

Most Labs use DSC to configure each VM once it has been provisioned, so the ability to download any required DSC Resources from the PowerShell Gallery is required. Some sample Labs also download MSI packages and other installers that will be deployed to the Lab Virtual Machines during installation – for example RSAT is often installed onto Windows 10 Lab machines automatically.

The Process

Step 1 – Install the Module

The first thing you’ll need to do is install the LabBuilder Module. Execute this PowerShell command at an Administrator PowerShell prompt:


Note: If you have an older version of LabBuilder installed, I’d recommend you update it to at least because this was the version I was using to write this guide.

Step 2 – Create the ISOs and VHDs Folders

Most labs are built using Windows Install media contained in ISO files. These are converted to VHD files that are then used by one or more Labs. We need a location to store these files.

By default all sample Labs expect these folders to be D:\ISOs and D:\VHDs. If you don’t have a D: Drive on your computer, you’ll need to adjust the LabBuilder configuration file in Step 4.

Execute the following PowerShell commands at an Administrator PowerShell prompt:


Step 3 – Create a Folder to Contain the Lab

When building a Lab with LabBuilder it will create all VMs, VHDs and other related files in a single folder.

For all sample LabBuilder configurations, this folder defaults to a folder in C:\vm. For the sample Lab we’re building in this guide it will install the Lab into c:\vm\NANOTEST.COM. This can be changed by editing the configuration in Step 4.

Note: Make sure you have enough space on your chosen drive to store the Lab. 10GB per VM is a good rough guide to the amount of space required (although it usually works out as a lot less because of the use of differencing disks).

Execute the following PowerShell commands at an Administrator PowerShell prompt:

Step 4 – Customize the Sample Lab file

We’re going to build the Lab using the sample Lab found in the samples folder in the LabBuilder module folder. The sample we’re using is called Sample_WS2016_NanoDomain.xml. I’d suggest editing this file in an editor like Notepad++.

If you changed the paths in Step 2 or Step 3 then you’ll need to change the paths shown in this screenshot:


You may also change other items in the Settings section, but be aware that some changes (such as changing the domain name) will also need to be changed elsewhere in the file.

If you already have an External Switch configured in Hyper-V that you’d like to use for this Lab to communicate externally, then you should set the name of the switch here:


If you don’t already have an External Switch defined in Hyper-V then one called General Purpose External will be created for you. It will use the first Network Adapter (physical or team) that is not already assigned to an External Switch. You can control this behavior in the LabBuilder configuration file but it is beyond the scope of this guide.

Save the Sample_WS2016_NanoDomain.xml once you’ve finished changing it.

Step 5 – Copy the Windows Media ISOs

Now that the ISOs folder is ready, you will need to copy the Windows Install media ISO files into it. In this case we need to copy in the ISO for Windows Server 2016 (an evaluation copy can be downloaded from here).

The ISO file must be name:


If it is named anything else then you will either need to rename it or go back to Step 4 and adjust the sample Lab configuration file.


Step 6 – Build the Lab

We’re now ready to build the lab from the sample configuration.

Execute the following PowerShell commands at an Administrator PowerShell prompt:

This will begin the task of building out your Lab. The commands just determine the location of your LabBuilder sample file and then call the Install-Lab cmdlet. I could have specified the path to the sample file manually, and you can if you prefer.


So sit back and grab a tea or coffee (or beer), because this will take a little while.

Note: The individual virtual machines are configured using PowerShell DSC after they are first started up. This means that it might actually take some time for things like domain joins and other post configuration tasks to complete. So if you find a Lab VM hasn’t yet joined the domain, it is most likely that the DSC configuration is still being applied.

Using the Lab

Once you’ve built the Lab, you can log into the VMs like any other Hyper-V VM. Just double click the Virtual Machine and enter your login details:


For the sample Lab the Domain Administrator account password is configured as P@ssword!1. This is set in the Lab Sample configuration and you can change it if you like.

Note: Nano Server is not designed to have an interactive GUI. You interact with Nano Server via PowerShell Remoting. You’ll want to have a basic knowledge of PowerShell and PowerShell Remoting before attempting to administer Nano Servers.

Shutting Down the Lab

Once the Lab has been completely built, you can shut it down with the Stop-Lab command. You need to pass the path to the Lab Configuration file to shut it down:

The Virtual Machines in the Lab will be shut down in an order defined in the Lab Configuration file. This will ensure that the VMs are shut down in the correct order (e.g. shut down the domain controllers last).

Starting the Lab Up

If you need to start up a previously created Lab, use the Start-Lab command. You will again need to provide the path to the Lab Configuration file of the Lab you want to shut down:

The Virtual Machines in the Lab will be started up in an order defined in the Lab Configuration file. This will ensure that the VMs are started up in the correct order.

Uninstalling the Lab

If you want to completely remove a Lab, use the Uninstall-Lab command. You will again need to provide the path to the Lab Configuration file of the Lab you want to unisntall:

Note: You will be asked to confirm the removals.

Wrapping Up

This article has hopefully given you a basic understanding of how to use LabBuilder to stand up a Hyper-V Lab in relatively short order and without a lot of commands and clicks. This project is still in Beta and so there may be bugs as well as some incomplete features. If you want to raise an issue with this project (or even submit a PR), head on over to the GitHub repository.


19 thoughts on “Easily Create a Hyper-V Windows Server 2016 AD & Nano Server Lab

  1. Luismi says:

    Hi, nice job.
    Sorry my bad english, but i get the next error while deploy.

    Mount-WindowsImage : The parameter is incorrect.
    At C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\LabBuilder\\lib\private\vhd.ps1:66 char:13
    + $null = Mount-WindowsImage `
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo : NotSpecified: (:) [Mount-WindowsImage], PSArgumentException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : Microsoft.Dism.Commands.MountWindowsImageCommand

    any idea ??
    Thx by advance


    • Hi Luismi,

      This is most likely caused by a corrupt Boot VHD that can’t be mounted correctly.

      Each Boot VHD is created from a “template” VHD that will be created from the Windows Server ISO. If you look in the Sample_WS2016_NanoDomain.xml file you’ll be able to section <templatevhds vhdpath="”>. What you could try is deleting any VHD files in the and then try rebuilding the lab with Install-Lab. This will rebuild the template VHD’s from the Windows Server ISO files.

      I hope that helps a little?



  2. Luismi says:

    Hi, thanks Dan.
    I start from zero,and install w2016 on my server.This time i don´t get the error, but now i get this…

    Remove-VMNetworkAdapter : No se encontró ningún adaptador de red con los criterios especificados.
    En C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\LabBuilder\\lib\public\vm.ps1: 1125 Carácter: 13
    + Remove-VMNetworkAdapter `
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo : ObjectNotFound: (:) [Remove-VMNetworkAdapter], VirtualizationException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : ObjectNotFound,Microsoft.HyperV.PowerShell.Commands.RemoveVMNetworkAdapter

    I try and try, and always get the same error on both computer with windows 10 and windows 2016.

    Thx for help, and one more time, sorry my bad english.


  3. eilz says:

    Great setup but can you share how you configured your Edge Node (Routing and Remote Access server) to work with the other VM’s in the Lab. Also when I try to update the Nano server it seem to fail have you experienced this?


    • Hi Eliz,

      Thank you!

      Unfortunately the edge node setup has to be done manually because there is no DSC Resource (yet) to configure RRAS. So what I usually do is manually configure the RRAS server up by:
      1. From Server Manager run Routing and Remote Access and connect to the SA-EDGE1 node:

      2. Right click the SA-EDGE1 node and select Configure and Enable Routing and Remote access.
      3. Click Next
      4. Select NAT and click Next
      5. Select the Adapter on your Edge node that is connected to the External Switch on your Hyper-V Lab host:

      6. Click Next
      7. Select the Network adapter connected to the Hyper-V private or internal switch that is used by your Lab LAN.
      8. Click Next.
      9. Click Finish.

      After a few seconds the RRAS will be configured. You may get an error about ports, but this doesn’t actually cause us any problems. All your nodes should now have internet access. You should check that the Default Gateway that the DNS Server on SA-DC1 is pointing to the IP of SA-EDGE1. It should be already but worth checking.

      The DNS Forwarder of the DNS Server (SA-DC1) should also be configured to use an external DNS Server (in my case I’m using Google’s DNS Servers):

      As for the Nano Servers, do you mean apply Windows Updates? I haven’t had any problem updating them, but you do need to use alternative methods to apply updates (e.g. the WindowsUpdate PowerShell Module won’t work). I did write a blog post on how to do this though: https://dscottraynsford.wordpress.com/2016/05/14/bulk-updating-nano-servers/

      Hope that answers your questions!


  4. Steve says:

    Good job, i try a sample WS2016_Simple.xml, everything was perfect except the connection.
    I get the following error

    VERBOSE: [23:37:37]: Connection to VM ‘LABBUILDER-SIMPLE.COM SS-DEFAULT’ failed
    (The client cannot connect to the destination specified in the request. Verify t
    hat the service on the destination is running and is accepting requests. Consult
    the logs and documentation for the WS-Management service running on the destina
    tion, most commonly IIS or WinRM. If the destination is the WinRM service, run t
    he following command on the destination to analyze and configure the WinRM servi
    ce: “winrm quickconfig”. ), retrying in 5 seconds.
    Get-Item : Cannot find path ‘localhost\Client\TrustedHosts’ because it does
    not exist.
    At C:\Program
    + … tedHosts = (Get-Item -Path WSMAN::localhost\Client\TrustedHosts).Valu …
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo : ObjectNotFound: (localhost\Client\TrustedHosts:S
    tring) [Get-Item], ItemNotFoundException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : PathNotFound,Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.GetIt

    Even if i connect to the VM via Hyper-v console and setup WinRM with command winrm quickconfig
    I get the same error describe above.
    Could you help me ?


    • Steve says:

      Yes i find a solution.
      I get error from Winrm because my network adapter was in public network. So i have to change it before make the connection between my laptop and my virtual machine.
      Just use simple powershell command
      Set-NetConnectionProfile -InterfaceIndex 52 -NetworkCategory Private
      I hope it will help someonelse.


  5. I keep getting this to use the Install-Lab command:
    Install-Lab : A parameter cannot be found that matches parameter name ‘configpath’.
    At line:1 char:13
    + install-lab -configpath ‘C:\Users\mlatham1.CENTURA\Downloads\LabBuild …
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo : InvalidArgument: (:) [Install-Lab], ParameterBindingException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : NamedParameterNotFound,Install-Lab


  6. I forgot to mention that I am using LabBuilder version when I get the error:

    Install-Lab : A parameter cannot be found that matches parameter name ‘configpath’.
    At line:1 char:13
    + install-lab -configpath ‘C:\Users\mlatham1.CENTURA\Downloads\LabBuild …
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo : InvalidArgument: (:) [Install-Lab], ParameterBindingException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : NamedParameterNotFound,Install-Lab


  7. Moon says:

    Hi Daniel Probably I’ve discovered an issue with Get-DSCResource and xIPAddress IPv6

    # no matter which vm
    PS C:\Windows\system32> $env:COMPUTERNAME

    PS C:\Windows\system32> Get-DscConfiguration -Verbose
    VERBOSE: An LCM method call arrived from computer SA-EDGE1 with user sid S-1-5-21-1328692572-3203178231-3736390581-500.
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: LCM: [ Start Get ]
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: [[xIPAddress]IPv4_1::[Networking]Network] Get-TargetResource: Getting the IP Address.
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: LCM: [ End Get ] [[xIPAddress]IPv4_1::[Networking]Network] in 0.0000 seconds.
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: [[xDefaultGatewayAddress]IPv4G_1::[Networking]Network] Get-TargetResource: Getting the Default Gateway Address.
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: LCM: [ End Get ] [[xDefaultGatewayAddress]IPv4G_1::[Networking]Network] in 0.0310 seconds.
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: [[xDNSServerAddress]IPv4D_1::[Networking]Network] Get-TargetResource: Getting the DNS Server Addresses.
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: LCM: [ End Get ] [[xDNSServerAddress]IPv4D_1::[Networking]Network] in 0.0000 seconds.
    VERBOSE: [SA-EDGE1]: [[xIPAddress]IPv6_1::[Networking]Network] Get-TargetResource: Getting the IP Address.
    Get-DscConfiguration : GetConfiguration did not succeed.
    At line:1 char:1
    + Get-DscConfiguration -Verbose
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo : NotSpecified: (MSFT_DSCLocalConfigurationManager:root/Microsoft/…gurationManager) [Get-DscConfiguration], CimException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : MI RESULT 1,Get-DscConfiguration

    PS C:\Windows\system32> Get-DscResource xipaddress

    ImplementedAs Name ModuleName Version Properties
    ————- —- ———- ——- ———-
    PowerShell xIPAddress xNetworking {InterfaceAlias, IPAddress, AddressFamily, Depe…


    • Hi Moon,

      As I’m a maintainer of the xNetworking DSC Resource I better look into this further. Thanks for reporting this. We did make some changes to the structure of xNetworking in so this might have affected things. I’ll try rebuilding my lab with the version.

      Do have multiple Network controllers defined? Are you able to post a copy of the DSCNetworking.ps1 file in the LabBuilder Files folder in the folder where your VM (e.g. SA-EDGE1) is installed?



  8. actually having a few issues with the conversion script. I take it this is just a download of the nano server version on github https://github.com/PlagueHO/New-NanoServerVHD/blob/master/Convert-WindowsImage.ps1 ?

    I have tried using an Eval ISO and Volume Lic version both with Nano wims. I keep hitting Cannot find path ‘HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\Windows
    NT\CurrentVersion\WinPE’ because it does not exist..

    Liked by 1 person

  9. Yasir says:

    how i can delete the VHD from my PC. something went wrong and i could not save the error message.moreover, how i can skip the powershell and use the gui interface.


    • Hi Yasir,

      You should be able to delete the VHD’s from your PC by locating the folder you installed your lab to and deleting it (usually D:\LabBuilder). However, you’ll need to go into Hyper-V Manager and delete each VM from there first.

      As for manually installing a Nano Server AD lab, that is a little harder with the GUI interface – it would take a very very long article to show how to do that as the number of steps required are quite significant. This is why I created LabBuilder in the first place 🙂


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